How do cells sense and adapt to oxygen supply? Oxygen can bind hemoglobin to provide support for the organism's REDOX reaction, but too much oxygen will cause body damage, oxygen free radicals can destroy many protein molecules, but also the culprit of human aging. So how do cells sense and adapt to oxygen supply? The following I use a better understanding of the words for you to explain, I hope to help you.
VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) endothelial growth factor
HIF (hypoxiainducible factor) is a hypoxia-inducing factor
HRE belongs to EPO
When cells are starved of oxygen, the kidneys secrete EPO (EPO is erythropoietin, a factor that affects red blood cell production). HIF (hypoxic inducible factor), which can initiate the expression of a series of genes, will combine with HRE(hypoxic response element) in EPO to form HIF-1α and HIF-1β to promote the transcription and expression of EPO in response to hypoxic environment. In addition, when cells are starved of oxygen, tumor cells will secrete VEGF (blood endothelial growth factor), which can promote the growth of new capillary blood, provide more blood to tissues and cells, and thus bring more oxygen. To put it simply: hypoxia can promote the secretion of EPO and VEGF, both of which can stimulate the bone marrow to produce new red blood cells to grow new blood and make new red blood cells, so as to transport oxygen more efficiently.
When the proline on HIF-1α interacts with the enzyme to form hydroxyproline, the protein expressed by the VHL gene recognizes this hydroxylated HIF and directs the body's ubiquitin-proteasome system to degrade it. To reduce the production of substances such as EPO in response to the high oxygen environment. To put it simply: When oxygen is sufficient, HIF-1 in the body is hydroxylated and labeled by the VHL protein, which is subsequently degraded by ubiquitination enzymes to reduce the production of substances such as EPO in response to high oxygen environments.
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